1. Create a presigned URL

1.1. 描述

预签名url创建一个临时链接,可用于公开共享对象,或提供一个临时目标,而不需要提供身份验证信息。

创建预签名url最简单的方法是使用AWS CLI:

$ aws --endpoint-url=https://{endpoint} s3 presign s3://bucket-1/new-file
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也可以设置URL的过期时间(以秒为单位)(默认为3600):

$ aws --endpoint-url=https://{endpoint} s3 presign s3://bucket-1/new-file --expires-in 600
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下面是一个示例预签名URL
https://cn-east-1.cloud-oss.com/examplebucket/test.txt
?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256
&X-Amz-Credential=<your-access-key-id>/20180721/cn-east-1/s3/aws4_request
&X-Amz-Date=20180721T201207Z
&X-Amz-Expires=86400
&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host
&X-Amz-Signature=<signature-value>
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创建预签名URL以下载对象

Java Example

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.DataOutputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.net.HttpURLConnection;
import java.net.URL;
import java.net.URLEncoder;
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets;
import java.security.MessageDigest;
import java.time.format.DateTimeFormatter;
import java.time.ZoneId;
import java.time.ZoneOffset;
import java.time.ZonedDateTime;
import java.util.Formatter;

import javax.crypto.Mac;
import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec;

public class CoSHMAC {
    // constants
    private static final String accessKey = "{COS_HMAC_ACCESS_KEY_ID}";
    private static final String secretKey = "{COS_HMAC_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY}";
    private static final String httpMethod = "GET";
    private static final String host = "{endpoint}";
    private static final String region = "";
    private static final String endpoint = "https://" + host;
    private static final String bucket = "example-bucket";
    private static final String objectKey = "example-object";
    private static final String requestParameters = "";
    private static final int expiration = 86400;  // time in seconds

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        try {
            // assemble the standardized request
            ZonedDateTime time = ZonedDateTime.now(ZoneOffset.UTC);
            String datestamp = time.format(DateTimeFormatter.ofPattern("yyyyMMdd"));
            String timestamp = datestamp + "T" + time.format(DateTimeFormatter.ofPattern("HHmmss")) + "Z";
  String standardizedQuerystring = "X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256" +
                "&X-Amz-Credential=" + URLEncoder.encode(accessKey + "/" + datestamp + "/" + region + "/s3/aws4_request", StandardCharsets.UTF_8.toString()) +
                "&X-Amz-Date=" + timestamp +
                "&X-Amz-Expires=" + String.valueOf(expiration) +
                "&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host";

            String standardizedResource = "/" + bucket + "/" + objectKey;

            String payloadHash = "UNSIGNED-PAYLOAD";
            String standardizedHeaders = "host:" + host;
            String signedHeaders = "host";

            String standardizedRequest = httpMethod + "\n" +
                standardizedResource + "\n" +
                standardizedQuerystring + "\n" +
                standardizedHeaders + "\n" +
                "\n" +
                signedHeaders + "\n" +
                payloadHash;

            // assemble string-to-sign
            String hashingAlgorithm = "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256";
            String credentialScope = datestamp + "/" + region + "/" + "s3" + "/" + "aws4_request";
            String sts = hashingAlgorithm + "\n" +
                timestamp + "\n" +
                credentialScope + "\n" +
                hashHex(standardizedRequest);

            // generate the signature
            byte[] signatureKey = createSignatureKey(secretKey, datestamp, region, "s3");
            String signature = hmacHex(signatureKey, sts);

            // create and send the request
            String requestUrl = endpoint + "/" +
                bucket + "/" +
                objectKey + "?" +
                standardizedQuerystring +
                "&X-Amz-Signature=" +
                signature;
URL urlObj = new URL(requestUrl);
            HttpURLConnection con = (HttpURLConnection) urlObj.openConnection();
            con.setRequestMethod(httpMethod);

            System.out.printf("\nSending %s request to IBM COS -----------------------", httpMethod);
            System.out.println("Request URL = " + requestUrl);

            int responseCode = con.getResponseCode();
            System.out.println("\nResponse from IBM COS ----------------------------------");
            System.out.printf("Response code: %d\n\n", responseCode);

            BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(con.getInputStream()));
            String inputLine;
            StringBuffer response = new StringBuffer();

            while ((inputLine = in.readLine()) != null) {
                response.append(inputLine);
            }
            in.close();

            //print result
            System.out.println(response.toString());

            con.disconnect();

            // this information can be helpful in troubleshooting, or to better
            // understand what goes into signature creation
            System.out.println("These are the values used to construct this request.");
            System.out.println("Request details -----------------------------------------");
            System.out.printf("http_method: %s\n", httpMethod);
            System.out.printf("host: %s\n", host);
            System.out.printf("region: %s\n", region);
            System.out.printf("endpoint: %s\n", endpoint);
            System.out.printf("bucket: %s\n", bucket);
            System.out.printf("object_key: %s\n", objectKey);
            System.out.printf("timestamp: %s\n", timestamp);
            System.out.printf("datestamp: %s\n", datestamp);
 System.out.println("Standardized request details ----------------------------");
            System.out.printf("standardized_resource: %s\n", standardizedResource);
            System.out.printf("standardized_querystring: %s\n", standardizedQuerystring);
            System.out.printf("standardized_headers: %s\n", standardizedHeaders);
            System.out.printf("signed_headers: %s\n", signedHeaders);
            System.out.printf("payload_hash: %s\n", payloadHash);
            System.out.printf("standardized_request: %s\n", standardizedRequest);

            System.out.println("String-to-sign details ----------------------------------");
            System.out.printf("credential_scope: %s\n", credentialScope);
            System.out.printf("string-to-sign: %s\n", sts);
            System.out.printf("signature_key: %s\n", signatureKey);
            System.out.printf("signature: %s\n", signature);

            System.out.println("Because the signature key has non-ASCII characters, it is");
            System.out.println("necessary to create a hexadecimal digest for the purposes");
            System.out.println("of checking against this example.");

            String signatureKeyHex = createHexSignatureKey(secretKey, datestamp, region, "s3");
            System.out.printf("signature_key (hexidecimal): %s\n", signatureKeyHex);

            System.out.println("Header details ------------------------------------------");
            System.out.printf("pre-signed url: %s\n", requestUrl);
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {
            System.out.printf("Error: %s\n", ex.getMessage());
        }
    }

    private static String toHexString(byte[] bytes) {
        Formatter formatter = new Formatter();

        for (byte b : bytes) {
            formatter.format("%02x", b);
        }
  return formatter.toString();
    }

    public static byte[] hash(byte[] key, String msg) {
        byte[] returnVal = null;
        try {
            SecretKeySpec signingKey = new SecretKeySpec(key, "HmacSHA256");
            Mac mac = Mac.getInstance("HmacSHA256");
            mac.init(signingKey);
            returnVal = mac.doFinal(msg.getBytes("UTF8"));
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {
            throw ex;
        }
        finally {
            return returnVal;
        }
    }

    public static String hmacHex(byte[] key, String msg) {
        String returnVal = null;
        try {
            returnVal = toHexString(hash(key, msg));
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {

        }
        finally {
            return returnVal;
        }
    }

    public static String hashHex(String msg) {
        String returnVal = null;
        try {
            MessageDigest digest = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA-256");
            byte[] encodedhash = digest.digest(msg.getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8));
            returnVal = toHexString(encodedhash);
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {
            throw ex;
        }
  finally {
            return returnVal;
        }
    }

    // region is a wildcard value that takes the place of the AWS region value
    // as COS doesn"t use the same conventions for regions, this parameter can accept any string
    public static byte[] createSignatureKey(String key, String datestamp, String region, String service) {
        byte[] returnVal = null;
        try {
            byte[] keyDate = hash(("AWS4" + key).getBytes("UTF8"), datestamp);
            byte[] keyString = hash(keyDate, region);
            byte[] keyService = hash(keyString, service);
            byte[] keySigning = hash(keyService, "aws4_request");
            returnVal = keySigning;
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {
            throw ex;
        }
        finally {
            return returnVal;
        }
    }

    public static String createHexSignatureKey(String key, String datestamp, String region, String service) {
        String returnVal = null;
        try {
            returnVal = toHexString(createSignatureKey(key, datestamp, region, service));
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {
            throw ex;
        }
        finally {
            return returnVal;
        }
    }
}
Create a presigned URL to upload an object
import datetime
import hashlib
import hmac
import requests
from requests.utils import quote

access_key = '{COS_HMAC_ACCESS_KEY_ID}'
secret_key = '{COS_HMAC_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY}'

# request elements
http_method = 'PUT'
region = ''
bucket = 'example-bucket'
cos_endpoint = '{endpoint}'
host = cos_endpoint
endpoint = 'https://' + host
object_key = 'example-object'
expiration = 3600  # time in seconds


# hashing methods
def hash(key, msg):
    return hmac.new(key, msg.encode('utf-8'), hashlib.sha256).digest()


# region is a wildcard value that takes the place of the AWS region value
# as COS doen't use regions like AWS, this parameter can accept any string
def createSignatureKey(key, datestamp, region, service):
    keyDate = hash(('AWS4' + key).encode('utf-8'), datestamp)
    keyRegion = hash(keyDate, region)
    keyService = hash(keyRegion, service)
    keySigning = hash(keyService, 'aws4_request')
    return keySigning


# assemble the standardized request
time = datetime.datetime.utcnow()
timestamp = time.strftime('%Y%m%dT%H%M%SZ')
datestamp = time.strftime('%Y%m%d')

standardized_querystring = ('X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256' +
                            '&X-Amz-Credential=' + access_key + '/' + datestamp + '/' + region + '/s3/aws4_request' +
                            '&X-Amz-Date=' + timestamp +
                            '&X-Amz-Expires=' + str(expiration) +
                            '&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host')
standardized_querystring_url_encoded = quote(standardized_querystring, safe='&=')

standardized_resource = '/' + bucket + '/' + object_key
standardized_resource_url_encoded = quote(standardized_resource, safe='&')

payload_hash = 'UNSIGNED-PAYLOAD'
standardized_headers = 'host:' + host + '\n'
signed_headers = 'host'

standardized_request = (http_method + '\n' +
                        standardized_resource + '\n' +
                        standardized_querystring_url_encoded + '\n' +
                        standardized_headers + '\n' +
                        signed_headers + '\n' +
                        payload_hash)

# assemble string-to-sign
hashing_algorithm = 'AWS4-HMAC-SHA256'
credential_scope = datestamp + '/' + region + '/' + 's3' + '/' + 'aws4_request'
sts = (hashing_algorithm + '\n' +
       timestamp + '\n' +
       credential_scope + '\n' +
       hashlib.sha256(standardized_request).hexdigest())

# generate the signature
signature_key = createSignatureKey(secret_key, datestamp, region, 's3')
signature = hmac.new(signature_key,
                     (sts).encode('utf-8'),
                     hashlib.sha256).hexdigest()

# create and send the request
# the 'requests' package autmatically adds the required 'host' header
request_url = (endpoint + '/' +
               bucket + '/' +
               object_key + '?' +
               standardized_querystring_url_encoded +
               '&X-Amz-Signature=' +
               signature)

print 'request_url: %s' % request_url

print '\nSending `%s` request to IBM COS -----------------------' % http_method
print 'Request URL = ' + request_url
request = requests.put(request_url)
print '\nResponse from IBM COS ---------------------------------'
print 'Response code: %d\n' % request.status_code
print request.text


# this information can be helpful in troubleshooting, or to better
# understand what goes into signature creation
print 'These are the values used to construct this request.'
print 'Request details -----------------------------------------'
print 'http_method: %s' % http_method
print 'host: %s' % host
print 'region: %s' % region
print 'endpoint: %s' % endpoint
print 'bucket: %s' % bucket
print 'object_key: %s' % object_key
print 'timestamp: %s' % timestamp
print 'datestamp: %s' % datestamp

print 'Standardized request details ----------------------------'
print 'standardized_resource: %s' % standardized_resource_url_encoded
print 'standardized_querystring: %s' % standardized_querystring_url_encoded
print 'standardized_headers: %s' % standardized_headers
print 'signed_headers: %s' % signed_headers
print 'payload_hash: %s' % payload_hash
print 'standardized_request: %s' % standardized_request

print 'String-to-sign details ----------------------------------'
print 'credential_scope: %s' % credential_scope
print 'string-to-sign: %s' % sts
print 'signature_key: %s' % signature_key
print 'signature: %s' % signature

 print 'Because the signature key has non-ASCII characters, it is'
 print 'necessary to create a hexadecimal digest for the purposes'
 print 'of checking against this example.'

 def hex_hash(key, msg):
     return hmac.new(key, msg.encode('utf-8'), hashlib.sha256).hexdigest()
 def createHexSignatureKey(key, datestamp, region, service):
     keyDate = hex_hash(('AWS4' + key).encode('utf-8'), datestamp)
     keyRegion = hex_hash(keyDate, region)
     keyService = hex_hash(keyRegion, service)
     keySigning = hex_hash(keyService, 'aws4_request')
   return keySigning

 signature_key_hex = createHexSignatureKey(secret_key, datestamp, region, 's3')

 print 'signature_key (hexidecimal): %s' % signature_key_hex

 print 'Header details ------------------------------------------'
 print 'pre-signed url: %s' % request_url
NodeJS Example
const crypto = require('crypto');
const moment = require('moment');
const https = require('https');

const accessKey = "{COS_HMAC_ACCESS_KEY_ID}";
const secretKey = "{COS_HMAC_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY}";
const httpMethod = 'GET';
const host = '{endpoint}';
const region = '';
const endpoint = 'https://' + host;
const bucket = 'example-bucket';
const objectKey = 'example-object'
const expiration = 86400  // time in seconds

// hashing and signing methods
function hash(key, msg) {
    var hmac = crypto.createHmac('sha256', key);
    hmac.update(msg, 'utf8');
    return hmac.digest();
}

function hmacHex(key, msg) {
    var hmac = crypto.createHmac('sha256', key);
    hmac.update(msg, 'utf8');
    return hmac.digest('hex');
}

function hashHex(msg) {
    var hash = crypto.createHash('sha256');
    hash.update(msg);
    return hash.digest('hex');
}

// region is a wildcard value that takes the place of the AWS region value
// as COS doesn't use the same conventions for regions, this parameter can accept any string
function createSignatureKey(key, datestamp, region, service) {
    keyDate = hash(('AWS4' + key), datestamp);
    keyString = hash(keyDate, region);
    keyService = hash(keyString, service);
    keySigning = hash(keyService, 'aws4_request');
    return keySigning;
}

function createHexSignatureKey(key, datestamp, region, service) {
    keyDate = hashHex(('AWS4' + key), datestamp);
    keyString = hashHex(keyDate, region);
    keyService = hashHex(keyString, service);
    keySigning = hashHex(keyService, 'aws4_request');
    return keySigning;
}

function printDebug() {
    // this information can be helpful in troubleshooting, or to better
    // understand what goes into signature creation
    console.log('These are the values used to construct this request.');
    console.log('Request details -----------------------------------------');
    console.log(`httpMethod: ${httpMethod}`);
    console.log(`host: ${host}`);
    console.log(`region: ${region}`);
    console.log(`endpoint: ${endpoint}`);
    console.log(`bucket: ${bucket}`);
    console.log(`objectKey: ${objectKey}`);
    console.log(`timestamp: ${timestamp}`);
    console.log(`datestamp: ${datestamp}`);

    console.log('Standardized request details ----------------------------');
    console.log(`standardizedResource: ${standardizedResource}`);
    console.log(`standardizedQuerystring: ${standardizedQuerystring}`);
    console.log(`standardizedHeaders: ${standardizedHeaders}`);
    console.log(`signedHeaders: ${signedHeaders}`);
    console.log(`payloadHash: ${payloadHash}`);
    console.log(`standardizedRequest: ${standardizedRequest}`);

    console.log('String-to-sign details ----------------------------------');
    console.log(`credentialScope: ${credentialScope}`);
    console.log(`string-to-sign: ${sts}`);
    console.log(`signatureKey: ${signatureKey}`);
console.log(`signature: ${signature}`);

    console.log('Because the signature key has non-ASCII characters, it is');
    console.log('necessary to create a hexadecimal digest for the purposes');
    console.log('of checking against this example.');

    signatureKeyHex = createHexSignatureKey(secretKey, datestamp, region, 's3')

    console.log(`signatureKey (hexidecimal): ${signatureKeyHex}`);

    console.log('Header details ------------------------------------------');
    console.log(`pre-signed url: ${requestUrl}`);    
}

// assemble the standardized request
var time = moment().utc();
var timestamp = time.format('YYYYMMDDTHHmmss') + 'Z';
var datestamp = time.format('YYYYMMDD');

var standardizedQuerystring = 'X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256' +
    '&X-Amz-Credential=' + encodeURIComponent(accessKey + '/' + datestamp + '/' + region + '/s3/aws4_request') +
    '&X-Amz-Date=' + timestamp +
    '&X-Amz-Expires=' + expiration.toString() +
    '&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host';

var standardizedResource = '/' + bucket + '/' + objectKey;

var payloadHash = 'UNSIGNED-PAYLOAD';
var standardizedHeaders = 'host:' + host;
var signedHeaders = 'host';

var standardizedRequest = httpMethod + '\n' +
    standardizedResource + '\n' +
    standardizedQuerystring + '\n' +
    standardizedHeaders + '\n' +
    '\n' +
    signedHeaders + '\n' +
    payloadHash;

// assemble string-to-sign
var hashingAlgorithm = 'AWS4-HMAC-SHA256';
var credentialScope = datestamp + '/' + region + '/' + 's3' + '/' + 'aws4_request';
var sts = hashingAlgorithm + '\n' +
    timestamp + '\n' +
    credentialScope + '\n' +
    hashHex(standardizedRequest);

// generate the signature
signatureKey = createSignatureKey(secretKey, datestamp, region, 's3');
signature = hmacHex(signatureKey, sts);

// create and send the request
// the 'requests' package autmatically adds the required 'host' header
var requestUrl = endpoint + '/' +
    bucket + '/' +
    objectKey + '?' +
    standardizedQuerystring +
    '&X-Amz-Signature=' +
    signature;

console.log(`requestUrl: ${requestUrl}`);

console.log(`\nSending ${httpMethod} request to IBM COS -----------------------`);
console.log('Request URL = ' + requestUrl);

// create and send the request
console.log(`\nSending ${httpMethod} request to IBM COS -----------------------`);
console.log('Request URL = ' + requestUrl);

var request = https.get(requestUrl, function (response) {
    console.log('\nResponse from IBM COS ----------------------------------');
    console.log(`Response code: ${response.statusCode}\n`);

    response.on('data', function (chunk) {
        console.log('Response: ' + chunk);
        printDebug();
    });
});

  request.end();

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